The Mafia Network in Argentine Science and Universities
by Eduardo R. Saguier
Independent Researcher of the CONICET
II. The Agency and the complicity of its Area Coordinators
III. The Conicet and the complicity of its Advisory Committees
IV. The National Universities and the complicity of their Science and Technology Secretariats
The National Agency for Scientific and Technological Promotion, reporting to the National Science and Technology Secretariat, was supposedly created out of the need of a science funding system different from the recipient’s institution, and also to deprive the CONICET of the funds used to subsidize its own Professional Researchers, alleging that it could not act as Judge and Interested Party in the distribution of said subsidies.
After a decade and paradoxically what started as a safe independence and academic balance objective ended up being the opposite, since the facts show that the Agency, the CONICET, the Science and Technology Secretariats of National Universities, the CONEAU and the Secretariat of University Policies of the Ministry of Education distorted their original principles individually and illegally merging their mutual interests.
The Area Coordinators of the Agency, who are in charge of appointing the evaluators of each project (of reserved identity), are appointed by the Agency’s Board of Directors. These Area Coordinators precede, accompany and survive the subsidies self granted, clearly implying the crime of collusion of interests.
Moreover, the Agency grants subsidies to certain and specific Researchers of the CONICET and in return, the Board of Directors of the CONICET appoints them to its multiple Commissions and through its own Qualifications Board, they are promoted within the scientific career. This plan would not have been possible without the support of multiple authorities, including, among others, the staff of the National Science and Technology Secretariat, as well as every official of the Science and Technology Secretariats of the different National Universities, which have been an intrinsic part of said plan through the categorization of the so called "Incentives."
These reciprocities result from unwritten codes, privileges and prerogatives, whereby the eventual allies are included. The authentically prestigious entities are used to infiltrate the unscrupulous and mediocre individuals, and the opposing parties or those elements considered dangerous are excluded through punitive measures (rejection of Reports, freezing of promotions, etc.), because they may be able to undermine the mafia plan. With these codes there is never a way to regret or report their colleagues. The denunciation and accusation are equal to underestimation and punishment.
Initially, the subsidies amounted to five-digit sums, and then they amounted to six-digit sums. In turn, at first the number of thematic Areas was reasonable but, as time went by, the number increased drastically. The merger of these science and technology agencies and the creation of multiple niches of academic power peaked and resulted in an increased fragmentation of the ranks of scientists.
We should point out that this research was done thanks to the insistence in the Pol-Cien Electronic List on showing the hidden information in the electronic website of the SECyT, which is not transparent at all, and seemed to be hidden on purpose. The comparison between the different lists was hand-made, without any software whatsoever and using the human memory, that is why many correlations are likely to be overlooked, specially those carrying patronymic surnames (e.g.: Pérez, Rodríguez, González, Fernández, etc.).
II. The Agency and the complicity of its Area Coordinators
In the National Agency for Scientific and Technological Promotion, reporting to the National Science and Technology Secretariat (SECYT), headed by Dr. Lino Barañao, the Area Coordinators Jorge Jorrat, Marcelo Cabada, Eduardo Arzt, and Jaime Cerda, might have assigned to themselves corresponding grants.
In effect, in the Call for proposals-2004, the Area Coordinator of the Human and Social Sciences Committee Dr. Jorge Jorrat received $209,000; and in the Call for proposals-2003, the Area Coordinator of Medical Sciences Dr. Eduardo Arzt received $210,000; the Area Coordinator of Biological Sciences Dr. Marcelo Cabada received $210,000, and the Area Coordinator of Chemical Technology Dr. Jaime Cerda also received $210,000. And in the Call for proposals-2002, in a suspicious operation an equal amount of money was assigned to who in the following year were the Area Coordinator of Information Technology Dr. Marcelo Frías, of Food Technology María Cristina Añón, and of Economy and Law Dr. Luis Beccaria.
In like manner, the members of CONICET Directory Faustino Siñeriz, Carlos Rapela and Noemí Girbal de Blacha received each one in the Call for proposals-2002 the amount of $210,000; and in the to Call for proposals-2005 an undetermined amount of money under the code 32.396. And to the Attaché of the Secretary of Science and Technology, and Director of the Scientific Observatory, Dr. Mario Albornoz, in the Call for proposals-2003 he received $128.000, and in the Call for proposals-2005 an undetermined amount of money under the code 33.851.
To the Area Coordinators, who have been accused at the beginning of this document we have to add the following Coordinators:
In the Call for proposals-2005 different amounts of money were given to Area Coordinators Marcelo Cabada, Juan José Cazzulo, Eduardo Arzt, Alcira Batlle, Juan José Poderoso, Horacio Corti, Alberto Vargas, Luis Gugliotta, and Ana María Antón.
In the Call for proposals-2004 different amounts of money were given to Area Coordinators Eduardo Cánepa, Mirta Quattrochio, Juan Pablo Paz, Rodolfo Sánchez, Damián Zanetti, Juan Jose Poderoso, Amelia Rubiolo and Verónica Bucala.
In the Call for proposals-2003 different amounts of money were given to Area Coordinators Carlos A. Balseiro, Juan José Cazzulo, Horacio Corti, Roberto Rossi, Carlos Lanusse, Isidoro Schalamuk, and Ricardo Carelli
In the Call for proposals-2002 different amounts of money were given to Area Coordinators Gustavo Politis, Luis Alberto Beaugé, Roberto Salvarezza, Ricardo Astini, Beatriz Coira, Hermenegildo Ceccatto, Carlos Gigolo, Luis Mroginski, Maria Cristina Anón, Luis Beccaria and Marcelo Frías.
In the Call for proposals-2000/2001 different amounts of money were given to Area Coordinators Eduardo Cánepa, Juan José Cazzulo, Marcelo Cabada, Rodolfo Sán-chez, Damián Ravetta, Gustavo Corach, Juan Pablo Paz, Juan José Poderoso, Alcira Batlle, Bea-triz Coira, Walter Helbling, Ana María Parma, Alberto Escande, Amelia Rubiolo, Alberto Vargas, Francisco Felipe Garcés, and the present President of the Agency Lino Barañao.
In effect, in the Call for proposals-2005, grants were given to Area Coordinators of Biological Sciences Marcelo Cabada and Juan José Cazzulo under the codes 31.660 and 38211; of Medical Sciences Coordinators Eduardo Arzt, Alcira Batlle, Juan José Poderoso under the codes 31.541, 32642, and 34.785; of Chemical Sciences Coordinator Horacio Corti under the code 32.916; of Energy Technology Coordinator Alberto Vargas under the code 32.438; of Chemical Technology Coordinator Luis Gugliotta under the code 38.158; and to Biological Sciences Coordinator Ana María Antón under the code 34.901.
In the Call for proposals-2004, grants were given to Area Coordinator of Biological Sciences Dr. Eduardo Cánepa AR$280.000; to the Area Coordinator of Earth Sciences Mirta Quattrochio AR$223.000; to the Physics-Mathematics Sciences Coordinators Juan Pablo Paz AR$271.000, Rodolfo Sánchez AR$200.000; and Damián Zanetti AR$202.000; to the Medical Sciences Coordinator Juan José Poderoso AR$279.000; to the Earth Sciences Coordinator Rodolfo Sánchez AR $78.802; to the Food Technology Coordinator Amelia Rubiolo AR$280.000; and to the Chemical Technology Coordinator Verónica Bucala AR$248.000.
In the Call for proposals-2003, grants were given to the Area Coordinator of Mathematics Sciences Carlos A. Balseiro AR$210.000; to the Area Coordinator of Biological Sciences Juan José Cazzulo AR$210.000; to the Area Coordinators of Chemical Sciences Horacio Corti AR$209.000 and Roberto Rossi AR$210.000; to the Area Coordinator of Animal Technology Carlos Lanusse AR$210.000; to the Area Coordinator of Energy Technology Isidoro Schalamuk AR$206.000; and to the Area Coordinator of Information Technology Ricardo Carelli AR$256.000. As a matter of fact, the Area Coordinator Roberto Rossi, here mentioned, might be the same one named in La Nación of Friday December 1st as having received the Sadoski-Bernardo Houssay Reward.
In the Call for proposals-2002, grants were given to the Area Coordinator of Human Sciences Gustavo Politis AR$200.000; to the Area Coordinator of Medical Sciences Luis Alberto Beaugé AR$210.000; to the Area Coordinator of Chemical Sciences Roberto Salvarezza AR$193.000; to the Area Coordinator of Earth Sciences Ricardo Astini AR$210.000 and Beatriz Coira AR$204.000; to the Area Coordinator of Physics-Mathematics Sciences Hermenegildo Ceccatto AR$200.000; to the Area Coordinator of Chemical Technology Carlos Gigoló AR$85.000; to the Area Coordinator of Agrarian Technology Luis Mroginski AR$163.000; to the Area Coordinator of Food Technology María Cristina Anon AR$209.000; to the Area Coordinator of Economy and Law Luis Beccaria AR$121.000; and to the Area Coordinator of Information Technology Marcelo Frías AR$206.000.
In the Call for proposals-2000/2001, grants were given to the Area Coordinators of Biological Sciences Eduardo Cánepa AR$130.000; Juan José Cazzulo AR$140.000; and Marcelo Cabada AR$90.000; to the Area Coordinator of Agrarian Technology Rodolfo Sánchez AR$84.000 and Damián Ravetta AR$140.000 (the last one partner of Ing. Víctor Kopp, Director of the Technical Area of Subsidies Management); to the Area Coordinators of Physics-Mathematics Sciences Gustavo Corach AR$105.000 and Juan Pablo Paz AR$90.000; to the Area Coordinator of Medical Sciences Juan José Poderoso AR$105.000; to the Area Coordinator of Chemical Sciences Alcira Batlle AR$150.000; to the Area Coordinator of Earth Sciences Beatriz Coira AR$120.000; to the Area Coordinator of Biological Sciences Walter Helbling AR$130.000; to the Area Coordinator of Animal Technology Ana María Parma AR$100.000; to the Area Coordinator of Agrarian Technology Alberto Escande AR$105.000; to the Area Coordinator of Food Technology Amelia Rubiolo AR$150.000; and to the Area Coordinator of Energy Technology Alberto Vargas AR$84.000 and Francisco Felipe Garcés AR $72.000. In this last Call for proposals-2000/2001 a grant was given to Prof. Lino Barañao AR$140.000; to the ex CONICET President and present FONCYT General Director Armando Bertranou AR$75.000; and to both Deans Alberto Boveris and Héctor Trinchero AR$170.000 each one. In the Call for proposals-2005 the ex Secretary of Science and Technology during the Menem government Juan Carlos del Bello received a grant under the code 35.196, and the Secretary of Education of the Buenos Aires Province Adriana Puiggrós an indefinite amount of money under the code 38.346. Also a grant was received by the recently promoted to the highest hierarchy of Senior Researcher of CONICET, Martín Isturiz, with an indefinite amount of money under the code 38.197
III. The Conicet and the complicity of its Advisory Committees
The presence of the members of the CONICET Directory Faustino Siñeriz, Carlos Rapela and Noemí Girbal de Blacha among the members of the Mafia Network or the “Chain of Happiness” of the Argentine science had confirmed the suspicion of an intrinsical reciprocity between the Agency and the CONICET, both belonging to the Secretariat of Science and Technology. Cross-tabulating the present list of members of the CONICET Advisory Committees, belonging to year 2006, with the lists of those receiving grants from the Agency-SEPCyT during the last quinquennium has given as a result almost a hundred direct correlations.
Among the members of the Advisory Committees of Medical Sciences, who received grants in 2000/ 2001 were Aldo Mottino with AR$105.000; Carlos José Pirola with AR$120.000; Oscar Bottasso with AR$92.000; and Héctor Targovink with the AR$105.000; in 2002 Patricia Elizalde with AR$210.000; Ana María Franchi with AR$210.000, and Alicia Belgorosky with AR$210.000; in 2003, Hugo Daniel Luján received AR$210.000, and Osvaldo Uchitel AR$200.000; in 2004 Rodolfo Campos received AR$279.000; Jorge Geffner AR$174.000; María Ángela Lazzari AR$280.000; Alicia Mattiazzi AR$251.000; Héctor Targovnik received again another grant of AR$252.000; and Mario G. Murer AR$195.000. In this last case, it might be necessary to make clear that Dr. Murer had already received in 2002 AR$110.334. And in 2005, Claudia Capurro received an amount of money under the code 32.130; Osvaldo Podhajcer an amount under the code 38.011; and again Osvaldo Uchitel an unknown amount.
Among the members of the Advisory Committees of Biology Alfredo Juan Castro Vázquez received in 2002 AR$147.000; and in 2005 Miguel Angel Sosa Escudero received an indefinite amount of money under the code 33.383; and Marta Dolores Mudry an amount of money under the code 38.001.
Among the members of the Advisory Committees of Chemistry, in 2000/2001 María Rita Micaela Hoyos de Rossi received AR$140.000; Manuel López Teijelo AR$94.000; and Carlos Previtali AR$105.000; in 2002 the Coordinator Gerardo Burton received AR$202.000; in 2004 Edgardo Durantini received AR$203.000; Luis Dante Martínez AR$160.000; and José Carmelo Pedregosa AR$267.000. And in 2005, Carlos M. Previtali received again an indefinite amount under the code 32.351. Among the members of the Advisory Committee of Biochemistry, in 2004, the Coordinator Beatriz Caputto received AR$280.000; José Luis Bocco AR $279.000; Horacio Garda AR$270.000; Fernando Goldbaum AR$280.000; and María Isabel Colombo AR$276.000. In this last case, it might be necessary to make clear that Dra. Colombo had already received in 2002 AR$196.771.
Among the members of the Advisory Committees of Mathematics and Computing Juan Santos received in 2002 AR$205.000; and Graciela Boente Boente received in 2004 AR$177.000. Among the members of the Advisory Committees of Physics, Ricardo Piegaia received in 2002 AR$171.249; and in 2005 Jorge Fernández Niello received an indefinite amount under the code 32.757; and Patricia Levstein another unknown amount under the code 33.623. Among the members of the Advisory Committee of Astronomy, its Coordinator Pablo J. Mauas received in 2005 an indefinite amount of money under the code 32.408. Among the members of the Advisory Committee of Natural and Exact Sciences Gerardo Perillo, who at the same time play the role of Coordinator of the Advisory Committee of Earth Sciences, received in 2004 AR$272.000.
Among the members of the Advisory Committee of Agrarian Sciences, in 2002 Roberto Lecuona received AR$175.000; and in 2003 Sofía Chulze received AR$210.000. Among the members of the Advisory Committee of veterinary, in 2000/2001 Osvaldo Rossetti received AR$75.000; and in 2002 Enrique Portianski received AR $197.000. Among the members of the Advisory Committee of Earth, Water and Atmosphere Sciences, in 2000/2001 Analía Artabe received AR$75.000; Sergio Matheos AR$85.000; and Alejandro Tosselli AR$150.000; in 2002 Carlos Cingolani received AR$188.167; in 2004 Susana Bischoff received AR$220.000; and in 2005 those who received grants were again Analía Artabe an amount of money under the code 32.323; and Alicia Ronco an amount under the code 38.350.
Among the members of the Advisory Committee of Civil, Mechanic and Electric Engineering, Ing. Guillermo Kaufman received in 2005 an amount of money under the code 38.168. Among the members of the Advisory Committee of Engineering and Industrial and Biotechnological Processes in 2000/2001 José Bandoni received AR$120.000.
Among the members of the Advisory Committee of Human Sciences, María Isabel Santa Cruz received in 2005 an unknown amount of money under the code 38.227. Among the members of the Advisory Committee of Architecture in 2000/2001 Beatriz Cuenya received AR$60.000. Among the members of the Advisory Committee of Histori and Anthropology in 2000/2001 Cristina Bellelli received AR $92.000.
Also have received grants the members of the Advisory Committees Pablo Penchaszadeh, Alfredo Bolsi y Guillermo Mengoni Goñalons. Also, this same phenomenon occurred at the University of Córdoba with researchers Dora Celton and César Tcach; in the University of Cuyo with biologist Alfredo Castro Vázquez; and in the National University of the South with the chemical technologist José Alberto Bandoni, who integrates the Advisory Committee of Engineering in Industrial and Biotechnological Processes.
Among the members of the Advisory Committee of the Ad-hoc Interdisciplinary of the Great Area of Agrarian Sciences, Noemí Walsoe de Reca received in 2003 an unknown amount of money; and in the Advisory Committee of Biological Sciences Stella González Cappa received an unknown amount, Ricardo Farías AR$210.000 in 2003, and Rodolfo Ugalde who at the same time played the role of Coordinator of the Advisory Committee of Veterinary and was Director of the Council of Scientific Research (CIC) of Buenos Aires Province received AR$210.000 in 2003 and AR$275.000 in 2004.
Among the members of the Advisory Committee of the Basic Center of Scientific Journals Alfredo Bolsi received AR$30.000 in 2000/01, Dora Barrancos AR$208.000 in 2004, Alejandro Rofman AR$135.000 in 2004, Marcelo Cavarozzi AR$204.000 in 2004, and an unknown amount Stella González Cappa.
Among the members of the Ad-Hoc Committee-Resources belonging to the Social Sciences Ana María Lorandi received in 2003 AR$72.969 and Víctor Tau Anzoátegui AR$50.000 in 2000/2001 and AR$95.000 in 2003. Among the members of the Ad-Hoc Committees of Materials, Roberto Salvarezza received in 2002 AR$193.000.
And finally, among the members of the National Committee of Ethics in Science and Technology of the SECYT Stella M. González Cappa, Alberto R. Kornblihtt, Armando Parodi and Otilia Vainstok received succulent grants. Dra. González Cappa has already accumulated since 1998 three different subsidies of three digits each one. ¿The other members Roberto Fernánez Prini, Samuel Finkielman, Noé Jitrik, Ernesto E. Maqueda, Fernando O. Ulloa and Aída Kemelmajer de Carlucci might have something to say about the Mafia Network or Chain of Happiness recently discovered in their own office? ¿None of these scientific experts in ethics suspected any irregularity?
IV. The National Universities and the complicity of their Science and Technology Secretariats
We had discovered that the Agency Coordinators -appointed by the Board of Directors to select the evaluators for each project- were also simultaneously or individually recipients of subsidies. Then, we found out that the Agency grants subsidies to certain and specific Researcher of the CONICET and in return, the Board of Directors of the CONICET appoints them to its multiple Commissions and through its own Qualifications Board they are promoted within the scientific career. And today, we are here to discover that this kind of unlawful association would not have been possible without the conspiracy of the Science and Technology Secretariats of the different National Universities and/or Schools that have been supported by the Evaluator Banks of the Secretariat of University Policies and the CONEAU -which establishes qualification boards, categorization and scores at individual and institutional levels- which are an intrinsic part in the eventual unlawful association and the criminal derivations thereof, regarding misappropriation, patrimonial usufruct of the position held and embezzlement.
Among the duties and responsibilities of the Science and Technology Secretaries of National Schools and/or Universities, the third bureaucratic leg on which the network leading the production of scientific knowledge would be placed is to follow up the Research Projects funded by national, provincial and/or university agencies, as well as to manage the Rendering of Accounts of expenditures made by those in charge of the funded Projects.
The officials responsible for granting subsidies to others and who, otherwise, grant the subsidies to themselves or third parties related due to friendship or kinship would have incurred in several crimes: first of all, in negotiations incompatible with holding public positions; secondly, in the development of an illegal network of misappropriation of decision-making structures of universities (President’s Office, Dean’s Office and Research Secretariats) and of academic institutions (CIN, CONEAU, CONICET, ANPCYT); thirdly, they would have become parties to an unlawful association further aggravated in view of the position held; fourthly, they would have incurred in what is known as patrimonial usufruct of the position held and embezzlement.
These conducts also apply to silence partners, who thrive sharing subsidies and projects (conducts set forth in articles 248, 256, 260, 261 and 210 of the Criminal Code), whereas the obligation of the academic official is to grant subsidies to those requesting them and not to incur in express incompatibilities granting them to themselves or partners or friends. By the way, in order to carry out a full investigation to prove the existence of an unlawful association, information regarding relationships by blood and by marriage should be requested. As it is known by any federal prosecutor, unlawful associations are, in the interior of the country –due to demographic reasons- a more intense and palpable reality than in the City of Buenos Aires.
As to the administrative management comptroller, note that National Universities employ different criteria in order to execute the audit function, with different degrees of accuracy and transparency, since to date no case of misappropriation or embezzlement has been discovered. Some Universities have unified this responsibility in a Secretariat or centralized agency, and others have diversified it in as many Secretariats as Schools exist in their organizational charts. In this case, note that, for some time, historian Daniel Campi has been in charge of the Science and Technology Secretariat of the National University of Tucumán, who, in 2002, received a subsidy by the Agency for an amount equal to AR$ 135,938.
In the National University of Córdoba, chemist Héctor Rubinstein leads the Science and Technology Secretariat, who in the previous period of 2005 was granted a subsidy for an amount still not determined. In 2005, the Science and Technology Secretary of the Exact Sciences School of the National University of Rosario, Roberto Aquilano, received a subsidy for an uncertain amount. In 2004, in the same University, the Science and Technology Secretary of the School of Medicine, Oscar Bottasso, received a subsidy for AR$ 213,125. In 2001, the Dean of Chemical Sciences of the National University of Córdoba, Gerardo Fidelio, received the amount of AR$ 134,000. And in 2005, the Vice-Dean of the Pharmacy School of the Litoral National University, Yolanda Bolzón de Lombardo, received another subsidy for an uncertain amount.
In the province of Buenos Aires, there were questioned events as well. In 2003, in the Southern National University, the current Science and Technology Secretary, Osvaldo Agamennoni, received the amount of AR$ 147,727. In 2005, in the National University of Mar del Plata, the Dean of Exact Sciences Gustavo Daleo and the Research Secretary Virginia Manzini received uncertain amounts of money. In 2004, in the National University of San Martín, the Rector of the Politics School, Marcelo Cavarozzi, was granted a subsidy for AR$ 204,529; and the Research Secretary, Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, was granted a subsidy for AR$ 71,279. And in the National University of Quilmes we have the case of a Departmental Advisor, biologist Pablo Ghiringhelli, who, in 2005, received a subsidy for an uncertain amount in Pesos; and biologist Mario R. Ermácora was subsidized in two consecutive periods, in 2004 and 2005.
In the case of the University of Buenos Aires (UBA), note that some of the six members of the Technical Advisory Committees (CTA, in Spanish), responsible for giving advice on the evaluation tasks of the different activities of the Science and Technology Secretariat of the UBA, would also be, hypothetically, essential parties to the reported network. The following Researchers are included among the recipients of subsidies for amounts still undisclosed, granted by the Agency in 2005: Rodolfo Rothlin, member of the CTA No.1, of Human Health Sciences; Juan Manuel Borthagaray, member of the CTA No.3, of Engineering, Environmental Sciences and Habitat (who, in turn, in 2002 received another subsidy for AR$ 210,000); Alicia Godeas (PICT-2003 of AR$ 208,980) and Juan Pablo Rossi (who, in turn, in 2002 received another subsidy for AR$ 206,250), members of the CTA No.4, of Basic and Biological Sciences; Guillermo Artana and Jorge Alberto Sarquis, members of the CTA No.5, of Engineering, Environmental Sciences and Habitat; and the members of the CTA No.6 of Agro Sciences and Animal Health: Ana Pilosof, Jorge Casal, Alejandro Mentaberry, Angel Chiesa (plus another subsidy in 2002 for AR$203,708), and Alicia Fernández Cirelli, former Chairwoman of UBACYT during Menem’s administration. Finally, we should contrast the lists of subsidy recipients against the former members of the same Technical Advisory Committees, which are not posted on the web, certainly removed so as not to leave any trace of the repeated crimes committed.
With regards to the Science and Technology Secretariats of every School of the UBA, note that in 2005, in the School of Dental Medicine, the Science and Technology Secretary, member of the CTA No.1, Enri Santiago Borda, obtained another PICT for an uncertain amount. In 2004, in the Pharmacy and Biochemistry School, the Science and Technology Secretary, Daniel Turyn, received a subsidy for AR$ 212,925. And in 2002, in the current Research Commission of the School of Medicine, Dr. Daniel Sordelli, was awarded a subsidy for AR$ 210,000. Likewise, we have discovered that the following are among the recipients of funds at the UBA provided by the Agency: the Philosophy and Literature Dean, Héctor Trinchero, received AR$ 170,000, the Pharmacy Dean, Alberto Boveris, received AR$ 140,000, the Pharmacy Vice-Dean, Graciela Ferraro, received an uncertain amount, in 2002 the Medicine Vice-Dean, Ricardo Gelpi, was granted a subsidy for AR$ 161,812; and in 2004 the former Social Sciences Dean, Fortunato Mallimacci, received AR$ 362,186. Among the staff of the National Science and Technology Secretariat we run into the unforgettable Hugo Levato, the one who assured from the USA, during the Military Process, that those Researchers, who were later “missing” were properly released. For this purpose, in 2004, Hugo Levato received a subsidy for AR$ 231,422. And in the case of the CONEAU, two Directors, sociologist and former official of the National University of Quilmes, Ernesto Villanueva, and sociologist Carlos Pedro Krotsch, received the amount of AR$ 155,354 and an uncertain amount, respectively, from the Agency in 2002 and 2005.
We have also noticed rare cases of researchers subsidized twice, i.e., subsidies granted to the same person and/or homonym, in two projects relevant to different academic units. This has been the case of Researcher Alberto Parma of the Center of the National University who appears with a subsidy granted in 2005 in the Medical Sciences Area, and another one granted in the same period in the Cattle Technology Area. Researcher Jorge Calvo of La Patagonia University, and simultaneously, member of the Qualifications Board of the CONICET, appears subsidized in the same period of 2005 in two different Projects, one in the Earth Sciences Area, and the other one in the Area of Biological Sciences of Organisms. And the case of Researcher Emilio Malchiodi of the UBA, who appears subsidized in the Area of Biological Sciences and in the Area of Medical Sciences as well.
In the case of the National University of Rosario, we have found out a peculiar example of a married couple who was fortunate enough to have their projects founded by the ANPCYT, not only the project of the husband, biologist Ricardo Duffard in 2005, but also the project of his wife, environmental technologist Ana María Duffard née Evangelista, for AR$ 258,333 accrued in 2004. Both subsidies added up amount to over half a million pesos received by the household in a couple of years.
Finally, the fourth leg of the table upon which the Argentine science is poorly served would be the Secretariat of University Policies and the CONEAU, both reporting to the National Ministry of Education. Said institutions are responsible for categorizing the so called teachers researchers and higher education programs. To date, through alleged categorizations and scores, both institutions have been subject to any kind of tampering and conspiracy, from which university teachers or researchers pertaining to the private sector have the privilege to be exempt. That is to say, members of private institutions or universities are exceptionally exempt from being subject to Kafkaesque and Caudine forks of a huge state bureaucracy.
In order to complete this investigation, we should get the List of Subsidies year 2006 and match the List of Subsidies of the Agency with the Lists of the Advisory Committees at the CONICET relevant to years 2000/2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004; this way we will be able to understand the management chart of the reported network. Likewise, this information should be matched with the Lists of Promotions granted by the Qualifications Board at the CONICET, and with the Lists of those categorized for the Incentives created by different National Universities. It should be added that the methodology is the same as that firstly implemented in the Bernardo Houssay Awards, awarded in 1987, then reported giving full names, and where one of the organizers is a member of the current Qualifications Board of the CONICET.
On all these Lists, more than a dozen of repetitions come to our attention, such as the case of Eduardo Cánepa, Rodolfo Sánchez, Juan José Poderoso, Héctor Targovnik, Mario G. Murer, Osvaldo Uchitel, Mario Albornoz, Carlos Altamirano, Víctor Tau Anzoátegui, Carlos M. Previtali, Analía Artabe, María Isabel Colombo, Beatriz Coira and Amelia Rubiolo, who appear as recipients in repeated Calls for Bids. The most shocking example seems to be the case of Poderoso, since the records show he received a third subsidy in 2005.
The questions worth asking are of legal and moral nature: Are the academic events managed by these Coordinators legally and morally valid? Are we facing a criminal case, and if so, is it applicable to bring charges or not? In case of a crime, should the acts of the accused individuals be reconsidered and in that case, should they return the money received, or not? What happens with those various projects that were rejected and whose evaluators were appointed by the Coordinators reported herein? And what would be the responsibilities of the Chairmen of the ANPCYT and the CONICET Lino Barañao and Eduardo Charreau, and their senior directors Tulio Del Bono and Daniel Filmus?
All this investigation leads to the old Socratic enigma as to whether it is possible to democratize the mafia or not, preventing power abuse and willful repetitions of the benefits distributed, or whether it is otherwise an impossible task. So far, we should analyze the advantages and least risk of errors of distinguishing works carried out over subsidizing projected works which eventual recipients must be previously categorized by a polluted state bureaucracy.
Finally, to sum up, the struggle against corruption in the field of science may only succeed from the political side, and no hope may be placed in the prosecution thereof. So politics should -within the framework of democratic rights and guarantees- perform the moral cleaning and structural change.
Call for Research Proposals -2000-2004
Call for Research Proposals -2005
Non-Accepted Proposals in 2004
Non- Accepted Proposals in 2003